Sunday, June 3, 2007

Crawfords worth noting

Thor descended from a line of Danish Chiefs who married into the family of the Anglo-Saxon King Alfred. After the Normans defeated the Anglo-Saxons in the Battle of Hastings, William the Conquerer forced Thor and his relatives from the English jurisdiction of Mercia to the independent principality of Northumbria, south of Berwick. But William pursued all of the refugees to Northumbria and proceeded to ravage a wide swath in Northumbria for having sheltered sympathizers of the defeated King Harold.

Thor escaped across the River Tweed where the Scottish King Malcolm granted Thor the area around the town of Ednam. Thor settled and developed the area with his own resources. The seal to the right is the actual seal of Thor that was appended to a charter affirming claim to the land of Ednam to Scottish King David. It was Thor's grandson, Galfridus, who we surmise was the first Lord of the Barony of Crawford, granted to him by Scottish King Alexander.

Sir Hugh Crawford (~1195 - ~1265)

Sir Hugh Crawford was the Third Sheriff of Ayrshire, Chief of Clan Crawford, and Lord of Loudon Castle. He probably lived in Loudon Castle even while he administrated quite some distance away in the town of Ayr. But Norse control over traditional Scots in the Western Isles and the under-handed way in which they gained control had been an aggravation to the Scots for years. King Alexander began pressing diplomatically and militarily to regain control begining in 1260. This prompted King Haakon to lead a large fleet in 1263 to the maritime boundary between the jurisdictions located along the northwest shore of Ayrshire.

Hugh, as the regional representative of the King and intimately familiar with the climate, offered a plan to Alexander to delay the Norse fleet in Scotland until the Autumn weather turned nasty. And it did on September 30, crushing the Norse fleet against the shoreline rocks. The Scots then attacked the confused Norse on the shore at Largs. The Norse escaped back to Norway in tatters, never to claim the Western Isles again. Alexander awarded Hugh the estate at Crosbie, shown to the right, in appreciation for his contribution to the defeat of the Norse.

Sir Ronald (Reginald) Crawford (~1240 - 1297)

Sir Ronald Crawford was the 4th Sheriff of Ayrshire, Chief of Clan Crawford, and Lord of Loudon Castle. He lived in the town of Crosbie, now known as Crosshouse and located 2 miles west of Kilmarnock. Sir Ronald lived in the original structure shown as the building to the left in the photo of Crosbie Towers on the right above.

Ronald was the brother of Margaret, the mother of William Wallace. He risked his life and the lives of his family to provide protection from the English to his nephew. After 6 years of running interference for his nephew as the situation spun out of control incident after incident, Sir Ronald paid with his life, being the first Lord of the Scottish Council of Barons to be killed by agents of King Edward at the Barns of Ayr in June 1297.

Sir William Wallace (~1270 - 1305)

Since most people are aware of the impact of the exploits of Scotland's greatest hero, little needs to be said about this Guardian of Scotland. He was the grandson, nephew, and cousin of three consecutive Chiefs of Clan Crawford, memorialized by Mel Gibson in the movie Braveheart. After his father, Malcolm Wallace, was killed in an ambush in 1291 at Loudon Hill, William Wallace lived in the home of his uncle, Sir Ronald, and benefited from the protection his uncle gave him from English prosecution. It was the murder of his uncle Ronald by agents of King Edward that organized the revolt that led to the defeat of the English at Stirling Bridge. After the death of Wallace's trusted second-in-command, John Graham, at Falkirk, William teamed with his Crawford cousins (Ronald and William Crawford, Patrick Crawford of Auchenleck, and Kirkpatrick of Closeburn) to continue taking the fight to the English. William and his cousins went to France to gain the support of the French and on to Rome to gain the support of the Pope. They spent 1299-1303 in France and Italy. The Scots returned home in 1303, rowing from the ship at night and hiding for several weeks at William Crawford's farm at Elcho. In 1305 William was betrayed by John Montieth at Robroyston in Glasgow and was executed by the English in London on August 23, 1305.

Sir William Crawford (~1260 - after 1310)

Sir William Crawford, son of Sir Ronald and cousin to William Wallace, was motivated by the murder of his father to join the revolt as a captain to Wallace. He became second-in-command in the Wars for Scottish Independence after John Graham was killed at the Battle of Falkirk in July 1298. As shown to the right, Sir William commanded 400 heavy cavalry to run the English forces out of Scotland after the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297. Soon after his return he became Governor of Edinburgh before leaving with Wallace to lay seige to York in 1298.

In 1299 Sir William escorted Wallace to the court of King Phillip of France. While sailing from Scotland the Scots captured the pirate known as the "Red Reiver" (Richard Longoville) and later gained his amnesty from Phillip in Paris. While in France they commanded the Scots Guard in 2 military victories over the English. Sir William lived on a farm now known for Elcho Castle, near Perth.

Captain Thomas Crawford (1530 - 1603)

Captain Thomas Crawford of Jordanhill (an old estate to the west of central Glasgow, part of which is now a college and hospital near Victoria Park) was a trusted confidant of Lord Darnley, husband of Queen Mary. After Darnley was murdered, Captain Thomas planned the assaults and led the forces that expelled Castle garrisons loyal to Catholic Queen Mary from both Dunbarton and Edinburgh Castles. This eliminated the final barrier to a reunification of Scotland under Queen Mary's son, Protestant King James, in 1573. Captain Thomas is entombed at Kilbirnie Kirk where the photo of his tomb marker on the right identifies his final resting place.

Colonel William Crawford (1732 - 1782)

Colonel William Crawford was an officer in the British forces that captured Fort Duquesne from the French in 1755. He also served in quelling Pontiac's rebellion in 1758. After moving his family to western Pennsylvania in 1766, he served as a land agent and local judge. He also served putting down the native rebellion in Lord Dunsmore's War in 1774. Initially an Aide to General George Washington in the Revolution when he actively fought at Trenton, Brandywine, and Germantown, he later served on the western frontier where he eventually met his fate, being burned at the stake by natives while the notorious murderer, Simon Girty, looked on.

Honorable William H. Crawford (1772 - 1834)

Senator from Georgia. Federal Judge. He ran for the Presidency of the United States and placed second. More to come ...

Honorable Mention

Galfridus Swaneson de Crawford (~1070 - ?), 1st Lord of the Barony of Crawford, ~1100
Sir Gregan Crawford (~1105 - ?), 1st to use the surname, Knight of King David in 1127
Sir Ronald Crawford (~1170 - 1226), 1st Sheriff of Ayrshire
Sir Ronald Crawford (~1260 - 1303), 5th Sheriff of Ayrshire, executed in Carlisle (1303) for supporting Wallace.
Sir William Crawford (~1400 - ?), 7th Laird of Craufurdland, Knight of King James I, served with the Scots in France at the Battle of Creyault, Burgundy, France, 1423
Colonel Lawrence Crawford (1611 - 1645), served in the Danish and Swedish Armies, served in the Unified Armies in Ireland, returned to Britain to fight for the Parliamentary forces against King Charles I. Killed in action at the Seige of Hereford in 1645.
Colonel John Walkingshaw Crawford (~1718 - 1793), served in the Union forces at Dettingen (1743) and Fontenoy (1745), Falconer to the King (1761)
Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Gregan-Craufurd (1761-1821), served with great courage and daring in the Netherlands in 1794
Major-General Robert Craufurd (1764-1812), commanded the Light Brigade in the Peninsula War
Holger Crafoord (1908-1982), Swedish Industrialist, inventor of artificial kidney, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, adopted son of engineer James Harry Crafoord
Bruce Crawford (1955-present), Member of Scottish Parliament (1999-present)
numerous previous Members of Parliament...

Crawford motto

Dalmagregan Branch: Tutum Te Robore Reddam - Our Strength in Exchange for Your Trust. This is a result of the 1127 event which produced the Clan Crest. This is the recognized Clan motto.

Crawfordjohn Branch: God schaw ye right (traditional) God shaw the right (alternative).

Crawford plant

Boxwood - In the days prior to the tartan registry and other modern formalities, boxwood was worn to identify the individual associated with Clan Crawford.

Crawford tartan

There are no strict rules on who has the right to wear a particular tartan. People normally wear only the tartan (if any) of their surname, or a "district tartan" connected with where they live or from where their family came. Wearing a particular clan tartan indicates that the wearer bears an allegiance to the chief of that clan. A tartan which uses the name of a clan may only do so if the chief of that clan has given his approval to the particular design. There is no official government register of tartans. Records of designs are maintained by the Scottish Tartans Authority, a non-governmental institution.

There are two different Crawford tartans to consider wearing: ancient and modern. Generally, the ancient tartan is of lighter colors and the modern tartan of darker colors in the same pattern. There are also tartans called Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, districts of Scotland. There are national Scottish tartans: Black Watch, Hunting Stewart, Jacobite, etc. And there is the St. Andrew's tartan and various province, state, and county tartans. Those whose surname is Crawford seldom opt for national or district tartans because its more appropriate for Clan associates to wear the tartan of the surname they support.

One taboo in wearing tartan is wearing those of two different clans. It has been suggested in the past that a man could wear a tie in his mother's clan tartan, but this is not correct. Even the same tartan tie as one's kilt is discouraged.

Crawford coat of arms

First, a Family Coat of Arms is a fictional creation. Coats of Arms are strictly for individuals and owned by individuals. Coats of Arms were and still are very much like a modern Registered Trade Mark for an individual. Each individual Arms is different from any other. What makes them incredibly valuable to researchers is that the rules governing each characteristic describe the individual in a symbolic way. This description can give hints about the owner's lineage and sometimes achievements.

Protection of ownership in Scotland is enforced by the Lyon Court. Outside Scotland ownership is not as formal. Arms are made of several features: the shield, the helm, the crest, the motto (a uniquely Scottish tradition), the supporters, and the mantle. A very interesting design is this contemporary registration of a descendant of the Ardmillan Cadet, with the paternal line in the dominant 1st and 4th quarters.

Aside from differencing, which is particularly important for Clan members whose genealogy is determined, the common features of the shield of a Crawfordjohn Branch member are that the shield is gules (red) with an ermine (white with black tails) fess (middle third). The shield to the above right is a single-differenced Crawfurdjohn Branch shield, a basic shield with a cloud geometry on the upper fess edge. Differencing is: (1) a slight geometric variation in the borders and edges, (2) addition of charges (symbols), as well as (3) more drastic quartering the shield among various paternal and maternal lineal descendencies. The quartered shields now appear in the Kilbirnie Cadet as a combination of the Crawford and Barclay shields, as shown above right, for reasons shown in the pedigree.
Chief's Shield, 1314-1700
Auchinames Cadet

Dalmagregan Branch
Kerse/Drumsuie Cadet

Chief's Shield, post-1700
& Crawfordjohn/Kerse

However, as shown to the left the Chief's line (Auchinames Cadet) adopted a silver (white) shield with two tilting lances in saltire between 4 spots of ermine, symbolizing the honors earned in the Battle of Bannockburn by Reginald Craufurd and the reason for the grant of Auchinames. And to further complicate matters, the Dalmagregan Branch shield is entirely different, being a silver (white) shield with a red stag's head as shown on the left, commemorating the act of Gregan de Craufurd.

The Coat pictured above right shows an amalgamated Coat of Arms. The shield is the original undifferenced Crawfordjohn Branch shield. Atop the shield is the helm indicating social status. Atop the helm is variation of the Dalmagregan Branch crest, in this case the face forward roe buck topped with the original Patriarchal Cross. Below the shield is the banner with the Dalmagregan Branch motto. There are no supporters for the shield and the mantling is a typical leaf design. But this doesn't preclude other Clan armigers from adding supporters. For example, the arms of one of the Dalmagregan cadets included two black horned bulls supporting the shield.

Coat of Arms
Clan Chief, 1314-1700
As the example on the right shows, the pre-1700 Clan Chief's Arms had a silver (white) shield, crossed lances, 4 ermine spots, a rising phoenix above the helm, and the Crawfordjohn motto. After the Dalmagregan and Crawfordjohn Branches unified in 1700 the shield of the Chief consisted of a quartered shield of representations from the 2 branches of the Clan as shown on the left. The 1st and 4th quarters of the shield are silver (white) with red stag's head for Kerse and Drumsoy. The 2nd quarter is silver (white) with crossed lances between 4 ermine spots for Auchinames. And the 3rd quarter is the Crawfordjohn red shield with ermine fess. Additionally, the Dalmagregan motto and crest were adopted for the new Chief's paternal line. It is particularly important to note that while the arms of Clan Branch members may show the arms of other families through quartering, the Clan Crawford Chief's Arms never demonstrate allegiance to any other clan, sept, or family. Clan Crawford is indeed a separate clan just waiting for a Chief to be identified.

Arms Listed with the Heraldry Society of Scotland
source: Lyon Court registrations
Crawford Gules, a fess Ermine
Crawford (aliter)* Argent, a stag’s head erased Gules
Crawford of Ardmillan Gules, on a fess Ermine between three mullets Argent two crescents interlaced Gules
Crawford of Auchinames Argent, two spears in saltire between four Ermine spots
Crawford of Auchinames (aliter)* Gules, a fess Ermine surmounted by two lances in saltire Argent
Crawford of Cartsburn Gules, a fess Ermine between three mullets in chief Argent and two swords in saltire Proper hilted and pommelled Or in base all within a bordure wavy Argent
Crawford of Cloverhill Gules, a fess Ermine between three crows Argent
Crawford of Camlarg Argent, a stag’s head erased Sable attired Or distilling drops of blood Proper
Crawford of Crawfurdland, John Gules, a fess Ermine
Crawford of Drumsoy Argent, a stag’s head erased Gules
Crawford of Easter Seaton, Henry Gules, a fess wavy Ermine between three mullets Argent pierced Azure
Crawford of Haining Gules, a fess Ermine between two stars in chief and a hart’s head couped in base Or
Crawford of Jordanhill, Thomas Quarterly: 1st and 4th Gules, a fess Ermine (Crawford) 2nd and 3rd Azure, a chevron between three crosses patty Or (Barclay)
Crawford of Kerse Argent, a stag’s head erased Gules
Crawford of Kilbirnie Gules, a fess Ermine
Crawford of Lochnoris Gules, a fess Ermine and in chief two stars Or
Crawford of Loudon Gules, a fess Ermine
Crawford, Earl of (Lindsay) Quarterly: 1st and 4th Gules, a fess chequy Argent and Azure (Lindsay) 2nd and 3rd Or, a lion rampant Gules debruised by a riband Sable (Lordship of Abernethy)
Crawford, John in Linlithgow Gules, a fess Ermine between two mullets in chief Argent and a hart’s head cabosses (caboched or caboshed: full-faced with no neck showing) in base Or attired Sable
Crawford, Viscount of Garnock Quarterly: 1st and 4th Gules, a fess Ermine and in base two swords in saltire Proper (Crawford) 2nd and 3rd Azure, a chevron between three crosses patty Or (Barclay)
* (aliter) means alternate or younger branch or cadet.

Now we can see that the Crawfordjohn Branch shares Gules, a fess ermine, the Dalmagregan Branch shares Argent, a stag’s head erased gules, and the Auchinames Cadet shares Argent, two spears in saltire between four ermine spots. All others are variations on such with the Kilbirnie Cadet sharing quarters with the Barclay arms. The Earls of Crawford are entirely different as they are Lindsays. Under the Crawfordjohn Branch are the following cadets: Ardmillan, Cartsburn, Cloverhill, Craufurdland, Easter Seaton, Fedderat, Haining, Kilbirnie, Loudon, and Linlithgow. Under the Dalmagregan Branch are the following cadets: Camlarg, Crawfordton (Nithsdale), Dalleagles, Drongan, Drumsoy, Kerse, Leifnoris, and Terrengan. Under the Kilbirnie Cadet are the following Estates: Cartsburn, Crawfordsburn, Jordanhill, and Garnock. The Auchinames Cadet shares numerous estates, some armigerous and some not, including Newton, Burgh Hall (Lincolnshire), Portencross, and Ardrossan.

Crawford crest

As a common portion of an armiger's Arms, the protocol governing the crest is not as formal as for the shield. The crest generally identifies members of a lineage within the Clan in a manner similar to the tartan. The generally observed Crawford crest is the roe buck set upon a wreath and topped with a cross of various styles. The Cross of Lorraine replacing the original styles is a modern alteration. Another recent addition is the crest when standing alone encircled with a buckled belt with the motto around the belt.

Tradition states that in 1127 Gregan Crawford, son of the Laird of Crawfordjohn, saved King David from the charge of a roe buck. In gratitude the King knighted him and built Holyrood Abbey. The result of this incident is that the roe buck is placed in the crest commemorating this event, and the cross is placed atop the roe buck to commemorate the construction of Holyrood Abbey. The motto is placed in the belt declaring most literally, "Our Strength in Exchange for Your Trust" in acknowledgement of King David's trust exchanged for protection.
Crawfordjohn Branch
North Ayrshire

But a closer examination shows that the observed crest was actually adopted by Patrick Crawford of Drumsoy from the Dalmagregan Branch when he married into the Chief's line of the Crawfordjohn Branch to become Clan Chief about 1700. The roe buck is the crest of the Dalmagregan Branch. The original Crawfordjohn Branch crest is a phoenix rising from flames with the motto "God schaw ye right." At present we can only speculate on the symbolic representation, but it is likely to represent the trial of the Wars of Independence for which the Crawfordjohn Branch sacrificed most dearly. As supporting evidence that the phoenix crest is from the Crawfordjohn Branch, this Crawfordjohn motto is also on a memorial in Kilbirnie Kirk for Thomas Crawford placed in 1594. Apparently Thomas was a loyal Clansman. The Crawfordjohn motto also appears in the Arms of the City of Ayr as a result of the First Sheriff of Ayrshire being Craufurdjohn Chieftain.

The Crawford Surname

The Crawford surname is of Scottish origin, being traced to the upper Clyde River Valley in Lanarkshire. The surname is followed back to the late 1000's when the Barony of Crawford is noted in records. This surname is recognized as an independent noble house of Scotland. Members of this Clan have played the most important roles in establishing and reuniting Scotland as a nation.

Kra- -f-
-ff- -ord
As a Southern Upland Family, the Crawfords didn't strictly follow the traditions of Highland Clans. There are no septs or affiliated surnames under the Crawford surname. But like all surnames, the spelling has undergone the effects of various cultures. One general rule is that the use of 'u' is Scots and the use of 'w' is Anglo. The variety of spellings includes most of the combinations in the table to the right. The most numerous surname worldwide is the Anglo spelling 'Crawford' with the Scottish spelling 'Craufurd' mostly in Scotland a distant second.
This Noble House of Scotland has been without representation on the Council of Clan Chiefs since the last recognized Clan Chief (Hugh Ronald George, b 1873) died in Calgary, Alberta, Canada in 1942 after having sold all of his heritable property in 1903, leaving nothing to unite around but historic legacy. Unfortunately this has led to the recent misunderstanding that the Crawford surname is a sept of Clan Lindsay, Clan Boyd, and even a few other Southern clans that traditionally do not have septs, which according to the Lyon Court is inherently inappropriate. Regardless of unsupported claims, the Lyon Court recognizes the Crawford surname as an armigerous clan with an official line of chiefs having for centuries registered Arms showing no differencing (except internal to cadets of the Clan) or allegiance to another clan. Nevertheless, we do appreciate a fellowship of parity from any clan or association.

Clan Crawford history

The early history of Clan Crawford is diverse and complicated. And like so many other Clan histories, competing theories of Crawford history are difficult to decipher looking back 900 years through 30 generations. However, by employing all we know about the secular and religious history of the period and using certain physical and biological rules [eg. a person can't be in 2 places at the same time, people 15- and 50+ years typically are not prolific reproducers, and nobody lived over 100 years] we can sort out competing theories.
One anecdote that keeps returning "like a bad burrito" is the claim that the Crawfords derive from Alan, the 4th Earl of Richmond. This version was widely distributed in Burke's General Armory, a series of editions published between 1842 and 1884. The registration of the Arms of Colonel Robert Crawford of Newfield in the mid-1800's states the basis of the connection being "presumptive evidence" in reference to the similarity of Arms between the House of Crawford (gules, a fess ermine) and the Earls of Richmond (gules, a bend ermine). There are several problems with this formulation. First, the first styling of the unofficial "Earls of Richmond" did not come about until 1136, well after the establishment of the House of Crawford absolutely no later than 1127 (stag incident and first use of the surname). Second, Arms designs of England (Richmond) and Scotland (Crawford) were independent with no prohibition against similarity as registrations didn't begin until a few centuries later. Third, aside from Alan technically being the 1st Earl of Richmond (although he could be justified as the 4th), Alan wasn't born until 1116. The claim is that his younger son, Reginald, is the father of John and Gregan who saved King David from the stag. Therefore, Alan was the 11 year old grandfather of the valorous Gregan of 1127, conclusively debunking the anecdote.
Regional and local maps are linked throughout the text. But for an overview of the geography, this super-map of Southern Scotland is provided with arrows pointing to Crawford sites with a supplementary legend identifying the sites. Also, this site for Old Maps shows some of the old Crawford estates in the mid-1800's, but requires a knowledge of exactly where the site is located relative to surrounding landmarks. This limited 1600's Map Collection has some wonderful old maps of Crawford estates.
Early Beginnings
While information exists on more primative events, the Crawford legacy as a Scottish Clan begins with a Danish Chief, Thorlongus (Thor the tall), who fled the Norman invaders in 1066 and was later granted the area around Ednam (Berwickshire) in Scottish King Malcolm's effort to strengthen his borders against the Norman invaders. Doubtless this advice came from his new Queen and second wife, Margaret (sister of Harold's uncrowned successor, Edgar Atheling). Thor was the first layman (non-royal and non-monk) to construct a church inside the borders of Scotland with his own resources. The Merse, the locale from which Thor is best known, is the area west of Berwick and north of the River Tweed. But he is also known in documents as the Overlord of Crawford.
Barony of Crawford - Crawford of that Ilk
We surmise from Thor being known as the Overlord of Crawford and from the results of a later division of the Barony in 1248 that Galfridus Swaneson was possibly the first Lord of the Barony of Crawford located in Lanarkshire. Of course, Swane Thorson could have been the first Lord, but there is no way for us to know for certain. Galfridus Swaneson's grandson is known as Dominus Galfridus de Crawford in the records of donations in 1179 to Kelso Abby.
The primary surname branch terminated with the death of John Crawford in 1248 (1246), known as "Dominus de eodem miles" or "Lord of Knightly Purpose" in numerous donation documents. The Lordship of half of the Barony of Crawford and the original old Crawford Castle passed from the Crawford Family to the Lindsay Family through the earlier marriage (1215) of John's daughter to David Lindsay. A few Lindsays unofficially lay claim to the entire Crawford family based on this marriage. It is important to note that even at this time there was no Lyon Court to establish recognized clans and therefore allegiance to the Lindsay's could not have been established.
But it is Galfridus Swaneson's secondary branch from Crawfordjohn Parish that carried the surname and the Chief's Arms in the time since 1248. It isn't until after David Lindsay took control of the Barony in 1248 we learn that John Crawfurd still had claim to a portion of the Barony, Crawfurdjohn Parish. This is the primary evidence that 4 generations before John Crawfurd and David Lindsay the Barony was divided between Galfridus Swaneson's sons, Hugh and Reginald.
Before the family grew and dispersed, the proto-branch from Crawfordjohn was known as Filius Reginaldi. Two of Reginald's sons, Johannes (John) and Gregan, were knighted in 1127. It is the tradition in Crawfordjohn Parish that this John is the origin of the Parish name. According to Burke's Peerage, great-grandson John, the stepson of Baldwin de Biggar, assumed possession of the parish circa 1153. This branch of the family, sometimes referred to by their individual estate or cadet names, is collectively known as the Crawfordjohn Branch. This is now the senior branch and will be discussed later.
Dalmagregan Branch
For his part in saving the life of the King David I in 1127, Sir Gregan was granted lands in Nithsdale, Ayrshire, where he was known as the "Lord of Tarengen" and became the progenitor of the Dalmagregan (Chief Gregan) Branch. Identified with this branch are the following estates: (1) Daleglis (Dalleagles, a farm 3 miles southwest of New Cumnock), (2) Drongan, (3) Drumsoy (Drumsey, Drumsuie, Drumsay, but not Drumry), (4) Liffnorris (Lochnoris or Leifnoreis) (5) Torringzean Castle (Terringzean or Terangen), (5) Balquhanny, (6) Auchincross and several others. The relationships between these cadets are difficult to decipher because the land records are not complete and do not state the relationship.
The intermarriage of lines sometimes complicates our understanding. For example, the Kerse Cadet and its offshoot at Camlarg are descended from the Crawfordjohn Branch. They lived in South Ayrshire and intermarried with the Dalmagregan Branch. In later years, the Dalmagregan Branch even married back into the Crawfordjohn Branch. A prime example of the intertwined relationships is revealed in the following diagram.
Terangen and Liffnoris
Gregan was known as "Lord Dalmachregan of Crawfordton in Nithsdale" after 1127. But how he acquired the title "Baron of Terangen" is not yet known. Terringzean Castle (pronounced "Tringan"), located about 1 mile west of Cumnock, as first noted in tax payments in 1438. While it is now in ruin, it was observed during excavations in the 1890's to have tower walls 10 feet thick and surrounded by a moat and steep embankments. Apparently the land around the Castle passed out of Crawfurd control because the Crawfords assumed control of the Castle after 1468 from the Boyds and resigned control to father-in-law Matthew Campbell of Loudon in 1563 via marriage. Adjacent to Terringzean Castle, the Liffnoris Estate had been occupied since the 1200's. Liffnorris has always been identified separate from Terangen. Liffnoris is now known as Dumfries House. The Craufurds relinquished the lands of Liffnorris about 1630-35.
Drongan and Drumsoy
Drongan is located seven miles east of Ayr. The reference to Cathcarts Crawfords directly east of Ayr in this chartered land map dated between 1500-1700 refers to this estate. The map also shows the adjacent Kerse Crawfords.
Drongan Castle was a stronghold of the Crawfurds from before 1400, when the first records appear, until 1623 when the Liffnorris Estate assumed control, demonstrating a connection between the two. The castle remains are found on the Drongan Mains Farm.
It is generally observed that the Drongan Estate is older than the adjacent Drumsuie Estate. Before about 1700 Patrick of the Drumsoy (Drumsuie) Cadet married back into the Chief's line of the Crawfordjohn Branch to become Clan Chief in Auchinames, unifying these 2 major branches in the figure of the Clan Chief. The remains of the Drumsuie Castle are found on the Wee Drumsuie farm on the southwestern edge of town.
The Crawfords occupied Dalleagles in the 1200's. The Crawfords sold the lands of Dalleagles in 1756 with heirs and descendants having moved to nearby Ayrshire towns.
Kerse Castle and Camlarg Cadet
While Kerse Castle is in the Registry of Scottish Castles, it no longer stands. Little is written about how the Crawfords came into possession of Kerse Castle. There are several stories of the feuds this cadet of the Crawfords had with one of the Kennedy families. The Camlarg Cadet is connected to the Kerse Castle Cadet through estate documents and is supported by heraldry analysis. The Camlarg Cadet (1 mile northeast of the village of Dalmellington, including the Pennyvenie coal mine), descended from Duncan Crawford, son of David Crawford of Kerse, the latter granting his Dalmellington property in 1585 to his brother, William, with reversion to back to Duncan.
Nevertheless, the trail of charters, grants, and wills between these Dalmagregan cadets is substantial with the exception of Balquhanny, about which very little is known. The common feud with the Kennedys, is supposedly based on the connection to the Campbells of Loudon. It was the Campbells and Kennedys that had an axe to grind. On the other hand, one must ask why the Dalmagregans had any dispute at all with the Kennedys based on the second cousin relationship at closest to the Campbells. The Campbells are descended from the Crawfords of Loudon.
Crawfordjohn Branch
Loudon Castle

Ayrshire ArmsTop left: Arms of Ayr Royal BurghTop right: Arms of Carrick DistrictBottom left: Arms of Cunningham DistrictBottom right: Arms of Kyle DistrictMotto: of Craufurdjohn Branch
The great grandson of the first John of Crawfordjohn, Reginald, was made the King's chief executive in Ayrshire, the Heritable High Office of Sheriff in 1196 when this office was first established. Reginald would never have been directly responsible to the King if the House of Crawford had been subjects of the House of Lindsay. Before 1200 Reginald married the heiress of the extensive Loudon estates. Loudon Castle was to be occupied by this branch of the Crawfords until 1318 when the Crawford heiress, who's father was executed by the English in 1306 (1303 or 1308) for supporting William Wallace, married Duncan Campbell, passing Castle control to the Campbells.
Crosbie and Craufurdland
There is confusion about whether the Crosbie estate was included in the Loudon estates as some historians argue that Crosbie was inherited by Hugh, the Second Sheriff, in 1245 when his father died. But numerous local published historians tell how Hugh, the Third Sheriff, provided a solution to young King Alexander's problem of eliminating Norse claim to the Western Isles in 1263 when King Haakon appeared in the Firth of Clyde with a large fleet of longships wanting to settle the issue with King Alexander. The general concensus among local historians is that Alexander awarded Hugh the estate of Crosbie for suggesting the ultimately successful strategy to delay the Norse fleet until an Autumn storm crushed the longships against the shoreline rocks as the opening act to the Scottish attack at the Battle of Largs.
Of the Loudon estates which were divided among Reginald's sons, John received the estate now known as Craufurdland, in the north outskirts of Kilmarnock in 1245 on the death of his father, the First Sheriff. John's great grandson, James, supported the revolt led by William Wallace and advocated his kinsman's knighthood and elevation to Guardian of Scotland after Stirling Bridge. From the Craufurdland Cadet came estates at Ardoch (said to be at Craufurdland), Giffordland and Birkhead (separate estates near Crosbie), Auchenairn, Beanscroft and Powmill. The descendants still live at Craufurdland. Craufurdland has remained in the control of the family for 760 years! William Crawford of Dalleagles married Janet Crawford of Craufurdland on 30 Sep 1658 to unite the Dalleagles and Craufurdland Cadets across branch lines.
Kerse Estate and Ardmillan Castle
Reginald, the brother of Hugh, the Third Sheriff, either through grant or marriage received the lands at Kerse. It is probable that this was the estate near Kilmarnock. The name is based on the Ragman's Roll, a list of land holders declaring fealty to King Edward of England. It is only assumed from heraldic analysis that this Kerse was not the Castle since the Kerse Castle Crawfords bear the Dalmagregan Arms.
An unnamed brother or son (as debated) of Reginald, the Fourth Sheriff, received the lands of Baidland located on the west side of Dalry. In this cadet, Baidland inherited the estate of Ardmillan Castle through marriage, located directly on the coast a few miles south of Girvan, Ayrshire. Ardmillan, listed in the Registry of Scottish Castles, burned in 1983 and the remaining structure removed in 1990. Heraldic analysis confirms that this cadet springs from the Crawfordjohn Branch
The Chief's Line at Auchinames
The senior line of the Clan received a charter of lands at Auchinames in 1320 from Robert Bruce. Auchinames is found in the western outskirts of Johnstone in Renfrewshire. This land was formerly in the possession of John Balliol and was forfeited when Bruce won the Regency. The Chief's line is detailed on the Chief's Page. While Hugh, the younger brother of the 5th and last Sheriff of Ayrshire, is the progenitor of this line, he died in 1319 after the Battle of Bannockburn and before the land charter of 1320. His son, Reginald, is the person granted Auchinames and the Arms of Lances Saltire. Until Lyon Court registrations are closely studied, it is presently unknown whether it was Hugh, Reginald, or both who served with valor at Bannockburn. More to come...
From Crawfordjohn to Kilbirnie
The Crawfords continued to control the lands of Crawfordjohn until 1528 when Laurence Crawford, the grandson of Malcolm Crawford shown at the bottom of the pedigree chart above the word "Kilbirnie," exchanged Crawfordjohn for the lands of Drumry (adjacent Clydebank) with James Hamilton of Fynart. This exchange consolidated his holdings more accessible from Kilbirnie, which Malcolm had acquired in or before 1499 and where Laurence had centered his operations. Descendants of this family also occupied the Cartsburn estate in Greenock during the 1600's and 1700's. In Kilbirnie, Palace (Place) Castle and Kilbirnie Kirk became the lasting legacies of this cadet.
A baronetcy was conferred upon Alexander Craufurd of Kilburnie in 1781. He had 3 distinguished sons. The first was Sir James Craufurd who was the British Ambassador in Germany from 1798-1803. The second was Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Gregan-Craufurd (1761-1821) who served with great courage and daring in the Netherlands in 1794. The third was Major-General Robert Craufurd (1764-1812) who commanded the Light Brigade in the Peninsula War. The current Baronet of Kilbirney is the 9th, Sir Robert J. Craufurd of Lymington, England.
Fedderate Cadet
Fedderate Castle is located well out of the mainstream in Aberdeenshire near Fraserburgh. The Barony and Castle name is derived from William de Fedreth of Duffus, who received this grant of land in Strathnaver from Sir Reginald de Chene in 1286. The daughters of Ronald Chene inherited lands that they carried to the Sutherlands. The last Sutherland heir died in 1371, lending credence to the assertion that the Crawfords assumed control of the Barony in 1391.
Fedderate was build by William Crawford who held the barony between 1474 and 1519. The four-storey L-plan tower originally stood within a courtyard, with defensive towers on the outer walls. A drawbridge spanned the moat to give access. The surrounding land consisted mainly of bog and the original castle must have seemed a very safe refuge indeed. The Crawfords held the Castle until at least 1573, the same year the Reformation of the Regency was concluded.
The present state of the castle is a legacy of the revolutionary times of James the Second and the struggle for crown and power. The castle was reported to have been the last strongholds of James II's supporters. The castle was besieged for four weeks and finally destroyed by the forces of King William III (William of Orange) in 1690, during the civil strife of that period. There are many legends relating to Fedderate and, as might be expected, the ruins are said to be haunted.
Haining Castle
These lands, west of Linlithgow, were granted to Reginald Crawford during the reign of James I. According to a charter dated 17 January, 1424/5, they included a large part of the present parish. The Castle was built by the Crawfords about 1470. The lands passed by marriage to the Livingstone family in 1540.
By 1676 the Castle was renamed Almond and in 1715 the lands were forfeited by the Livingstone's involvement in the Jacobite Rebellion. William Forbes, the ancestor of the current owner, purchased the Castle in 1783. The Castle was leased and eventually became unoccupied by 1797. While renovations were undertaken in 1600 by the Livingstones to add an East Wing, which no longer survives, the Castle has been in decline since passing from the Crawfords. It is widely published nowadays that the Castle is occupied by beings of the netherworld.
The Wars of Independence
In most histories Clan Crawford members are just periferal characters or left out entirely. But the most authoritative history, The Life of William Wallace by Blind Harry (written about 1475), places the Crawfords right in the thick of the action. With William Wallace as the leader, it was primarily Clan Crawford that provided the support structure for the popular and idealistic uprising. Indeed, it was not the death of William's father in 1291, but the murder of his uncle Ronald Crawford in June 1297 that crystalized the rebellion that led to the English defeat at Stirling Bridge in September 1297.
In 1296 Ronald Crawford, as Sheriff of Ayrshire, had the responsibility to reluctantly compile the Ragman Roll in the County of Ayr for King Edward. Many names can be gleaned from this list. But many did not sign the Roll, including many of Clan Crawford.
The death of Malcolm Wallace at the hands of the English in 1291 implanted a deep resentment of the English in William. From this time William started his one-man revolt with his uncle, Sir Ronald, picking up the pieces after every clash and providing protection for William. Undoubtedly this placed Sir Ronald and his family in grave danger. After a string of excuses and promises, the English lost confidence in Sir Ronald's ability to maintain peace. Edward ordered the slaughter of the land-holders in Ayrshire and Renfrewshire. Sir Ronald was the first to be murdered in a gruesome mass hanging in the Barns of Ayr where land-holders were drawn under the guise of a peace conference. Wallace witnessed the aftermath and sought immediate retribution, burning all of the English soldiers the following night as they slept in nearby buildings.
Sir Ronald's oldest son, Ronald, became Sheriff and his younger son, William, joined the revolt with his cousin Wallace. Many other Crawford cousins joined as well, including Patrick of Auchenleck and Kirkpatrick of Closeburn. After the English defeat at Stirling Bridge, Scottish nobles made Wallace the Guardian of Scotland and a Knight of the Realm, while Wallace's second, John Graham, and Wallace's third, William Crawford, were knighted also.
William Crawford also participated in the seige of York in 1298 before the Scottish betrayal and defeat at Falkirk where John Graham was killed. William Crawford became Wallace's second. Without the support of the Scottish nobles, the pair and their cohorts sailed for France to further their cause by assaulting the English wherever they could. The pair lead the Scots Guard to 2 dashing military victories over the English while they were in France. But their desire was to return to Scotland to fight for Independence.
When they returned to Scotland in 1303, they recouperated on the farm of William Crawford near the site of present day Elcho Castle. Unfortunately the English were warned and this led to a string of events resulting in William Crawford's wife nearly being burned at the stake before English attention was diverted to the chase.
Meanwhile, the younger Ronald, Sheriff of Ayrshire, was seized by the English and executed at Carlisle in 1306/7. But even with the betrayal of Wallace by John Menteith and Wallace's subsequent execution in 1305, Clan Crawford was not finished with the fight for Independence. Reginald, the nephew of the last Sheriff Ronald (Reginald), received the former King's (John Balliol) Auchinames estate near the town of Johnston in compensation for his valorous fight in the War-winning Scottish victory over the English at Bannockburn in 1314. It is this line that assumed the role of Clan Chief and established the Arms of the Chief as lances saltire on a silver shield between 4 spots of ermine to commemorate his participation at Bannockburn.
Thomas Craufurd was born the 6th son of Laurence of Kilbirnie in 1530. Realizing that 6th sons don't inherit anything, Thomas set out to create his own future by becoming a soldier. After an unspectacular beginning, being captured at the Battle of Pinkie and later ransomed. Thomas spent 11 years in the Scots Guard in France where he became a military advisor to Mary, Queen of Scots. Thomas purchased his estate at Jordanhill from Bartholomew Montgomerie, a chaplain in the Drumry Church that Lawrence Crawford had founded in 1546 on the lands Lawrence acquired in 1528 adjacent the Drumry estate. It is said that long before the lands had belonged to the Knights of St. John.
Through his acquaintence with Mary in France, Thomas became a trusted advisor of Mary's husband, Lord Darnley. After Darnley's murder, Thomas actively opposed the Queen's efforts to Catholicize the Scottish Regency and he began to serve Mary's Protestant son who became King James VI of Scotland. Thomas devised a plan to scale the walls of Dunbarton Castle to remove the Castle garrison loyal to Mary. In the early morning hours in the spring of 1571 Thomas and his small contingent successfully captured Dunbarton Castle. Two years later Thomas received the surrender of Edinburgh Castle after defeating the Queen's Commander Huntley at a place called Gallow Lee, reuniting Scotland under a Protestant Regency of James VI.
In 1576 he founded the Bishop's Bursary at Glasgow University. The following year he became Provost of Glasgow and built the first bridge over the Kelvin River at Partick. Under his Coat of Arms appears the following inscription:
He that by labour does any honestieThe labour goes, the honour bides with thee:He that by treason does any vice also,The shame remains, the pleasure soon agoes. Jordanhill was sold to Alexander Houston in 1750. It is now the Jordanhill School.
The previous discourse is a very brief summary of the Clan History extracted from the most comprehensive publication on the subject thus far, "Sons of Freedom." This book is available from the author, printed on demand, hardbound, and sold at cost. There is also some very interesting reading to be found at Crawford-John Parish web site.
The basis of Sons of Freedom is George Crawfurd's M. S. (ManuScript) History of the Crawfurds, published in the early 18th century and found today in the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh along with his joint publication with George Robertson, Description of Cunningham, and to a lesser extent Wood's Peerage. These sources are fully supported with references to secular and religious records and are by far the most authoritative outlines of the Crawford history. Additional information is extracted from Particular Description of Cunninghame (1840), Annals of Ayrshire Parish (1896), Our Village: The Story of West Kilbride (1990), A History of the House of Loudon and Associated Families, (1993), Scottish Surnames and Families (1996), A History of Kilbirnie Auld Kirk (2000), all found in 2004 in the Kilmarnock, Kilbirnie and West Kilbride Public Libraries.
Another very good research resource is this link list of Scottish records.

Crawford Castle history

At that time the largest and most influential barony in southern Scotland was The Crawford Baronry. The Barony was established before 1100, when records of the period show Thorlongus of the Merse as Overlord of Crawford. From this line descended the surname of Crawford as the original occupants of the barony. Crawford Castle was in existence by 1175,[2] and was probably built as an earthwork castle some time before this by the Crawford family.
The Lindsay family inherited half of the Barony of Crawford, known as Crawford Parish, via a marriage in 1215 to the elder daughter of Sir John Crawford, who died in 1246 without male issue. The Crawford family retained the other half, known as Crawfordjohn Parish, as the Barony had been divided among the Crawford family four generations earlier. Crawford Castle is located in Crawford Parish. From an early date, the Clan Carmichael of Meadowflat acted as hereditary constables of the castle, retaining this post under successive owners.
The castle was occupied by the forces of Edward I of England during the Wars of Scottish Independence. Between Christmas 1296 and the spring of 1297, William Wallace rode with John Graham and forty men to assault the stronghold, then known as Crawford Lindsay. Wallace stormed the castle and took it from the English garrison. Wallace had a personal interest in regaining the castle, as his mother, Margaret Crawford, was a daughter of the Clan Crawford Chief Hugh Crawford, who was then Sheriff of Ayrshire.
In 1398, Robert II granted the title of Earl of Crawford to David Lindsay, who had won great praise on St George’s Day, 23rd April 1390 for bravery in a duel with the Englishman Baron Welles on London Bridge after Welles, at a banquet in Edinburgh, and presumably after too much alcohol issued, as Champion of England, the challenge: "Let words have no place; if ye know not the Chivalry and Valiant deeds of Englishmen; appoint me a day and a place where ye list, and ye shall have experience."[3][4]
At the accession of James IV in 1488 the barony of Crawford was transferred to Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus for supporting his father, James III, against the young prince's rebellion. The Earls of Angus held the castle until 1578, when their estates were forfeited by the young James V. James used Crawford as a hunting lodge until his own death in 1542. His mistress, Elizabeth Carmichael, was the daughter of the hereditary constable.
After 1542 the barony was returned to the Earls of Angus, the keepership of the Carmichaels of Meadowflat coming to an end in 1595. In 1633 the 11th earl was created Marquess of Douglas, and the castle was probably rebuilt after this date. The castle then passed to the Duke of Hamilton, before being sold to Sir George Colebrooke in the 18th century. After a period of use as a farmhouse, the building was abandoned at the end of the 18th century, and much of the stone reused to build the present Crawford Castle Farm. Four stone tablets bearing coats of arms, one with the date 1648, are built into the west and south walls of the Castle Crawford House.[5]

There is also the Craufurdland castle that is fully restored and privately owned. There are many more that changed names after the crawford widows remarried and their estates took up the husbands name, such as Cambell, Lindsey, Duncan...